Chemistry and Technology of Agrochemical Formulations
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It aims to promote all aspects of product formulation from initial product concept, through the development of prototypes, to market testing and manufacture, across the diverse markets impacted. Agrochemical products and adjuvants are of vital importance in agriculture, to protect food and fiber crops from weeds, insect pests and diseases, in order to feed and clothe the growing world population.
The soundest scientific approach is the understanding of the relationships between the components of a formulation and its properties such as the stability of an emulsion or a suspension in terms of molecular theory. The source of the oldest formulations is probably pharmacy , in which the skills associated with the development and execution of recipes has grown into an independent discipline, galenics.
Toggle navigation. Formulation Chemistry and Technology It aims to promote all aspects of product formulation from initial product concept, through the development of prototypes, to market testing and manufacture, across the diverse markets impacted. Learn more The Nebula Award has been awarded to stories in the Science Fiction and Fantasy genre every year since Learn about the winners of the s! What makes Biblio different? Facebook Instagram Twitter. Sign In Register Help Basket 0.
Basket 0 items. Toggle navigation. Ships with Tracking Number! For instance, applicants may be correlated with IPC, which will produce a competency matrix, this allows determining the set of competencies of an applicant company in the field, or that of an applicant corporate group, determined by comparison of the common competencies and contrast between different ones. A matrix of IPC against IPC will reveal the technological network of common patents; inventors with inventors will give the inventor network; and inventor with IPC will give the inventor competencies.
Other comparisons can be made by cross-linking the set of available fields: applicants — inventors what works and where , IPC - date of publication technologies of the public domain , applicants - date of publication applicants concerned with technologies of the public domain , etc.
Working this way will also make it possible to develop other databases by keeping the original IPC and combining it with other terms such as different active ingredients or coadyuvants, etc.
Dou shows how innovative thinking, comparisons, and value-maps can thus be achieved. Search by title and issue, or use the journal search engine for full-text search of abstracts across all journals www. Data on specific compounds can be searched in the Chemistry WebBook by name, chemical formula, CAS registry number, molecular weight, chemical structure, or selected ion energetics and spectral properties. Other major editors with chemistry references are:. Cambridge University Press Chemistry www.
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The most important include the following:. While no method has emerged as dominant for evaluating and comparing chemical or material hazards, rather there exists a range of assessment methods and tools that are available for defining and comparing the hazards associated with chemicals.
Nevertheless, we recommend to validate it before incorporating to intelligence reports. This domain comprises information from symposia, exhibitions, scientific meetings, workshops, reports of industrial corporations, advertisings, catalogs, etc. Scientific associations are a way of simultaneously obtaining information and personal contacts.
There exist numerous scientific associations that organize congresses, jointly contribute information, produce scientific magazines, etc. Some of them are purely scientific, others have lucrative purposes. A large number of organisations are devoted to formulations —either making or analysing them, providing raw ingredients, manufacturing instruments to study them, creating jobs for formulation scientists, providing training, publishing literature, etc.
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At any rate, it is good to know them, to analyze their domains of competence and to take part or to monitor their production. Below are a few links from institutions that support or have formulation activities:. Many corporations that sell chemical products or mixtures of chemical products suggest various formulations which include their ingredients and additives.
US6602823B1 - Agrochemical formulations - Google Patents
They put them to the service of their potential customers. Many examples exist: www. Synapse information resources www. Note for example the information coming from laboratories of university researches, of special advertisings done for certain products, the forums of discussions, etc. This information, in contrast to the preceding one, will have to be validated.
Emulsifiable Concentrate (EC)
Example: The Indiana University School of Informatics built CHMINF-L, an Internet resource for keeping up with new information products of interest to chemists and for getting answers to chemical information questions in general listserv. There are still many examples of good web sites where reliable chemical information can be found at no cost: www2. With this cognition the technologist will be able to think up "incubate" other forms of classifying knowledge. Methodologies to apply creative thinking include the following among others : Quality Function Deployment QFD The procedure consists of five steps: First, the market research was conducted to determine the target segment.
Second, the behavioral motives of the consumers in the target segment were analyzed. Third, product objective specifications were established through physico-chemical and instrumental methods. Fourth, sensory analyses were performed involving both consumer and trained panels. The last step of research relates to analysis of the mutual relations between technical and sensory measurements and integration of results in the House of Quality matrix Seider, et.
Stern et al. Morphological analysis Yoon and Park, The morphological analysis of claims in patents is based on the identification of occupied configurations on collected patents while the unoccupied configuration territory is suggested as a technology opportunity. Technologies can be analyzed to identify a technological breakthrough by revising the morphology of patents, which is achieved through two methods—differentiation and diversification.
While differentiation is related with the extension of shapes, diversification is concerned with the extension of dimensions see Figure 3. Chemical formulation patents can be analyzed to identify ingredients in the protected formulation and the behavior response of such mixture see Table 4. Furthermore, with data derived from technology intelligence, similar and substitutive ingredients can be proposed for the purpose of an innovative formulation with intellectual property possibility. It is also necessary to point out that depending on the project that is going to be developed, or the ingredients to be used, the technologist will have to re-cap the information and construct its data base constantly, because of the continuous evolution in this area.
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The transdisciplinarity of the formulation sometimes requires expert feedback. This will in turn require at least two activities: consolidating a net of experts from chemical associations, and managing intellectual property in those cases where exchanging or sharing information is required.
We will do the same step for all the chemical terms in accordance with the schedule of conditions. According to the selected products, we will look at the toxic effects, etc. It should be noted also that it is necessary to search Chemical Abstracts to obtain the results upstream.
But in this case the appropriate set of scientific vocabulary is required.
The Great Formosa Hoax
We might use selected patents, and having retrieved them in Chemical Abstracts, move towards the fundamental one. It would also be necessary to test the commercial databases present in Dialog or DataStar in the domain of interest. Technological alertness in the formulation domain will take time and might be relatively complicated, since it is evident that there is inevitable work to do, e. By reverse engineering their functionality, cost, etc. While time-consuming, it may in certain cases be the least risky solution.
The importance of the analysis and tacit knowledge of the specialists is then preponderant. The names of the different ingredients that are present in the product considered are also a precious assistance. In fact the legislation, in the domain of the food processing, cosmetics, pharmaceutics, sanitary products, regulate the use of ingredients. Aubry, J.
Benavides, C. Ministerio de Industria,Turismo y Comercio. Cohen, D. Dou, H. World Patent Information , 26 4 , p.